Success in the development of rice hybrids largely depends on the availability of effective restorers and precise basic knowledge on the genetics of fertility restoration of CMS and restorer lines. In a study using twenty diverse restorers and five 'WA' type cytoplasmic genetic male sterile (CMS) line, revealed the fertility restoration to be governed by two major genes with epistatic interactions that differed from crosses to crosses. The inheritance of fertility restoration in CRMS 32A × AD 06084R and ten other cross combinations revealed an F2 segregation ratio of 12:3:1 (FF: SF: CS), indicating the involvement of two dominant genes which exhibit dominant epistasis. In COMS 24A x IET 20899R hybrid, pollen fertility of F2 segregation fell into the digenic ratio 9FF: 3SF: 4CS showed the involvement of digenic supplementary or an epistasis with recessive gene action. F2 segregation ratio of 9:6:1 with two dominant genes which exhibiting epistasis with incomplete dominance was observed in COMS 24A × IET 20898 R and fourteen other cross combinations suggesting the two dominant genes Rf3 and Rf4seem to control the fertility restoration. The differential mode of action of restorer genes could presumably be due to the influence of the female parent genotype or to the variable expression of the weaker gene in different genetic backgrounds. The differential segregation behaviour could also be due to the existence of certain modifiers influencing the penetrance and expressivity of the fertility-restorer genes.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
- Akagi, H., A. Nakamura, Y. Yokozeki, A. Inagaki, H. Takahashi, K. Mori and T. Fujimura. 2004. Positional cloning of the rice Rf-1 gene, a restorer of BT-type cytoplasmic male sterility that encodes a mitochondria targeting PPR protein. Theor. Appl. Genet. 108: 1449–1457.
- Bharaj T. S., S. S. Bains, G. S. Sidhu and M. R. Gagneja. 1991. Genetics of fertility restoration of 'wild abortive' cytoplasmic male sterility in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Euphytica, 56: 199-203.
- Bharaj, T. S., G. S. Sidhu and S. S. Gill. 1990. Ease of fertility restoration in CMS lines. Int. Rice Res. Newsl., 15: 4 – 5.
- Chaudhary, R. C., S. S. Virmani, and G.S. Khush .1981. Patterns of pollen abortion in some cytoplasmic genetic male sterile liens of rice. Oryza, 18: 140–2.
- Govinda Raj, K. and E. A. Siddiq. 1985. Genetics of fertility restoration and biochemical basis of male sterility – fertility system in rice. Rice. Genet. Newsl., 2: 103 – 104.
- Govindaraj, K. and Virmani, S.S. 1988. Genetics of fertility restoration of ‘WA’ type cytoplasmic male sterility in rice. Crop Sci., 28:787-792.
- Huang, C. S., T. Tseng and C. G. Shen. 1987. Gentic analysis of fertility restoration in cytoplasmically male sterile indica rice. J. Agric. Res. China. 36: 137 – 150.
- Jing, R., X. Li, P. Yi, Y. Zhu. 2001. Mapping fertility restoring genes of rice WA cytoplasmic male sterility using SSLP markers. Bot Bull Acad Sin., 42:167–171.
- Kazama, T. and K. Toriyama. 2003. A pentatricopeptide repeat-containing gene that promotes the processing of aberrant apt6 RNA of cytoplasmic male-sterile rice. FEBS Lett., 544: 99-102.
- Komori, T., T.Yamamoto, N. Takemori, M. Kashihara and H. Matsushima. 2003. Fine genetic mapping of the nuclear gene, Rf-1, that restores the BT-type cytoplasmic male sterility in rice (Oryza sativa L.) by PCR-based markers. Euphytica, 129: 241-247.
- Kumar, S. and S. N. Chakrabarti. 1983. Genetic and cytogenetic analysis of spikelet sterility in indica_japonica crosses in Oryza sativa L. Indian J Genet Plant Breed., 60: 441–50.
- Liu, X.Q., X. Xu, Y.P. Tan, S.Q. Li and J. Hu. 2004. Inheritance and molecular mapping of two fertility-restoring loci for Hongolian gametophytic cytoplasmic male sterility in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Mol. Genet. Genom., 271: 586-94.
- Md. Sarowar Hossaina, Ashok Kumar Singh and Fasih-uz-Zaman. 2010. Genetics of fertility restoration of ‘WA’-based cytoplasmic male sterility system in rice (Oryza sativa) using indica / japonica derivative restorers. Science Asia, 36: 94–99.
- Mishra, G.P., R. K, Singh, T. Mohapatra, A.K, Singh, K.V, Prabhu, F.U, Zaman and R.K, Sharma. 2003. Molecular mapping of a gene for fertility restoration of wild abortive cytoplasmic male sterility using a Basmati rice restorer line. J Plant Biochem Biotech. 12:37–42.
- Ramalingam, J., N. Nadarajan, P. Rangasamy and C. Vanniarajan. 1992. Genetic analysis of fertility restoration in hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.). Ann. Agric. Res., 13: 221 – 223.
- Sarkar, C.K.G., F.U. Zaman and A.K. Singh. 2002. Genetics of fertility restoration of ‘WA’ based cytoplasmic male sterility system in rice (Oryza sativa L.) using basmati restorer lines. Indian J Genet Plant Breed., 62: 305–8.
- Sohu, V.S. and P.S. Phul. 1995. Inheritance of fertility restoration of three source of cytoplasmic male sterility in rice. J Genet Breed., 49: 93–6.
- Yao, F.Y., C.G. Xu, S.B. Yu, X.J. Li, Y.J. Gao, X.H. Li and Q. F. Zhang. 1997. Mapping and genetic analysis of two fertility restorer loci in the wildabortive cytoplasmic male sterility system of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Euphytica, 98: 183-187.
- Yokozeki, Y., A. Nakamura, A. Inagaki, N. Ichikawa, Y. Koshino, H. Akagi, H. Shimada, T. Tsuchiya, C. Shinjyo and T. Fujimura. 1996. DNA markers of a fertility restoration gene Rf1 in rice (Oryza sativa L). Breeding Sci., 46 (1):73
- Yuan, L.P. 1992. Development and prospect of hybrid rice breeding. In: You CB and Chen ZL (eds.) Agricultural Biotechnology. Proc. Asian-Pacific Conf. Agric. Biotechnol., China Sciences and Technology Press, Beijing, 97-105.
- Zhang, G., T.S. Bharaj, S.S. Virmani and N. Huang. 1997. Mapping of the Rf3 nuclear fertility restoring gene for WA cytoplasmic male sterility in rice using RAPD and RFLP markers. Theor. Appl. Genet., 94: 27-33.